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Jeep Project CJ-7

An ongoing Budgeted Rebuild/Build up of a Rock
Crawling Machine.

Offroaders Guide to Gearing up for Offroad
From Basic Equipment to Well Equipped.  An extensive list guide to help you prepare your vehicle for the offroad.


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Jeep Central
From Jeep History to Tech Specs and Projects.  This section is all about Jeeps.
Jeep Technical Info
Engines
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Installing 23,000 Volt Offroad Lights


Onboard Air
Converting a York
AC Compressor
to Pump Air

What are HID Lights?

Onboard Air
Converting a York
AC Compressor
to Pump Air

Warn 9500i Winch Installation

Warn X8000i
Winch Installation

 

HEI Ignition
Installation & Review

Lockers, Limited Slips &
other Differentials Explained

 

 

 

Wheeling in the Valley of the Ferns

1.jpg (70086 bytes)
Tellico North Carolina


Paragon Adventure Park
Rock Krawl

Thousands more photos here..

 
 

 

 

 

Battery Terminology

Active Material
Chemically active compounds in a cell or battery that convert from one composition to another while producing current (electrical energy) or accepting current from an external circuit. 

Battery Polarity
A battery has two poles or posts. The positive battery post is usually marked POS, P, or + and is larger than the negative post which is usually marked NEG, N, or -. The polarity of the charger and the battery must always match to avoid damage to the battery and charger.

Cell
The basic electrochemical current-producing unit in a battery consisting of a set of positive plates, negative plates, electrolyte, separators and casing. There are six cells in a 12-volt lead-acid battery.

Cold Cranking Amps
Cold Cranking Amps is a rating used in the battery industry to define a battery's ability to start an engine in cold temperatures. The rating is the number of amps a new, fully charged battery can deliver at 0 Farenheit for 30 seconds, while maintaining a voltage of at least 7.2 volts, for a 12 volt battery. The higher the CCA rating, the greater the starting power of the battery.

Container
The polypropylene or hard rubber case which holds the plates, straps and electrolyte.

Cover
The lid for the case/container.

Electrolyte
A solution of sulfuric acid and water which conducts current through the movement of ions (charged particles in the electrolyte solution) between positive and negative plates. It supplies sulfate ions for reaction with the active material of both positive and negative plates.

Grids
A lead alloy framework that supports the active material of a battery plate and conducts current

Ground
The reference potential of a circuit. In automotive use, the result of attaching one battery cable to the body or frame which is used as a path for completing a circuit in lieu of a direct wire from a component. Today, over 99% of autos use the negative terminal of the battery as the ground.

Intercell connections
Connections between the straps of two cells, positive of one cell to the negative of the next.

Open Circuit Voltage (O.C.V.)
The voltage of a battery when it is not delivering or receiving power. It is 2.11 volts for a fully charged battery cell.

Plates
Flat, typically rectangular components that contain the active material and a mechanical support structure called a grid, which also has an electrical function, carrying electrons to and from the active material. Plates are either positive or negative, depending on the active material they hold.

Reserve Capacity (RC)
Reserve Capacity, (RC) is a battery industry rating, defining a battery's ability to power a vehicle with an inoperative alternator or fan belt. The rating is the number of minutes a battery at 80 degrees F can be discharged at 25 amps and maintain a voltage of 10.5 volts for a 12 volt battery. The higher the reserve rating, the longer your vehicle can operate should your alternator or fan belt fail.

Separators
Porous plastic, electrically insulating sheets which allow transfer of ions between plates, but prevent physical contact between plates and resulting electronic conduction

State of Charge
Use this chart to determine the State of Charge for a Deep Cycle Battery
 

State of Charge Specific Gravity Voltage
(12 Volt Battery)
100% 1.265 12.7
75% 1.225 12.4
50% 1.190 12.2
25% 1.155 12.1

 

Straps
Lead alloy castings that connect a number of same polarity plates together in a cell and carry current

Terminals
The electrical connection from the battery to the external circuit. Each terminal is connected to either the first (positive) or last strap (negative) in the series connection of cells in a battery.

Vents
Components that allow gasses to exit the battery while retaining the electrolyte within the case. Can be permanently fixed to the cover or removable, depending on battery design.

Ampere-hours (Ah)
Ampere-hours (Ah) is the product of the time that a battery can deliver a certain amount of current (in hours) times that current (in amps), for a particular discharge period. This is one indication of the amount of total energy a battery is able to store and deliver at its rated voltage. This rating is rarely stated for automotive batteries.

Cranking amps (CA)
Cranking amps (CA), also sometimes referred to as marine cranking amps (MCA), is the amount of current a battery can provide at 32 F (0 C). The rating is defined as the number of amperes a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12 volt battery).

Cold cranking amps (CCA)
Cold cranking amps (CCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 0 F (−18 C). The rating is defined as the amperage a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery). It is a more demanding test than those at higher temperatures.

Hot cranking amps (HCA)
Hot cranking amps (HCA) is the amount of current a battery can provide at 80 F (26.7 C). The rating is defined as the amperage a lead-acid battery at that temperature can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain at least 1.2 volts per cell (7.2 volts for a 12-volt battery).

Reserve capacity minutes (RCM)
Reserve capacity minutes (RCM), also referred to as reserve capacity (RC), is a battery's ability to sustain a minimum stated electrical load; it is defined as the time (in minutes) that a lead-acid battery at 80 F (27 C) will continuously deliver 25 amperes before its voltage drops below 10.5 volts.

Peukert's Law
Peukert's Law expresses the fact that the capacity available from a battery varies according to how rapidly it is discharged. A battery discharged at high rate will give fewer amperehours than one discharged more slowly.

Hydrometer
Hydrometer is an instrument, which is used for measuring the specific gravity of liquids. A hydrometer is a weight with a vertical scale attached. When placed into a liquid, the hydrometer bobs upright, and sinks to a certain level. The specific gravity or solution composition can be read from the liquid level on the vertical scale. Hydrometers have many uses, it is most commonly used by wine, beer, and a mead maker in determining the alcohol content of a homemade beverage. Hydrometers are also used to test batteries by measuring the percentage of sulfuric acid in the battery electrolyte in terms of specific gravity. Thus it has many other uses too. there are different types of hydrometers, which is used for different industrial and commercial purposes.

With batteries, the hydrometer measures the density, and therefore indirectly the amount of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte. A low reading means that sulfate is bound to the battery plates and that the battery is discharged. Upon recharge of the battery, the sulfate returns to the electrolyte.

Open Circuit Voltage
The open circuit voltage, measured when the engine is off. It can be approximately related to the charge of the battery by:

Open Circuit Voltage ~ State-of-charge
12.65 V 100 %
12.45 V 75 %
12.24 V 50 %
12.06 V 25 %
11.89 V 0 %

 

Kilby Dual Battery Tray
The Kilby Dual Battery Tray allows
for secure installation of two 34 and
34/78 series Optima Batteries to
provide more power

Optima RedTop Battery - Optima YellowTop
Spiracell Technology Batteries for Demanding systems.
 

 

 

Jeep Project CJ-7

An ongoing Budgeted Rebuild/Build up of a Rock Crawling Machine.

All Terrain 
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Tire Reviews & Info

All Terrain
AT Tire Reviews


Mud Terrain
MT Tire Reviews

 

 

Ramp Travel Index
RTI / Ramp Travel Index What it is and how to calculate it, with and without the ramp.

Offroad Tire Info
P-Metric Tire Sizes Conversion to Inches
Tire Terminology
Wheel Terminology
How to Pick the Right
Tires for your Truck
Truck Tire Info
Tires - What Hits What Fits
  
All Terrain  Mud Terrain
Tire Reviews & Info
Mud Terrain MT Tire Reviews
All Terrain AT Tire Reviews
Super Swamper Bogger
Super Swamper SSR
Super Swamper SX
Super Swamper Vortrac
Interco IROK TSL
Super Swamper LTB
Super Swamper TSL
Super Swamper TSL Radial
Super Swamper Narrow
Interco SS-M16 Swamper
Thornbird TSl Radial
Thornbird TSl Bias
Thornbird TSL
Parnelli Jone Dirt Grip
BFGoodrich Krawler
BFGoodrich MT T/A KM
BFGoodrich MT T/A KM2
BFGoodrich AT TA KO
BFGoodrich Mud King XT
Bridgestone Dueler MT
Cooper Discoverer ST
Cooper Discoverer STT
Cooper Discoverer ST/C
Federal Couragia MT
Firestone Destination AT
Firestone Destination MT
General Grabber MT
General Grabber AT2
Green Diamond Icelander
Ground Hawg Mud Tire
Hankook Dynapro MT
Hankook Dynamic MT RT01
Hercules Terra Trac MT
Hercules Trail Digger MT
Kelly-Springfield Safari DTR
Kelly-Springfield Safari MSR
Kumho Road Venture MT
Kumho Road Venture KL71
Kumho Road Venture AT
Dick Cepek Mud Country
Dick Cepek F-C II
Dick Cepek Fun Country II
Dick Cepek Fun Country Nylon
Dick Cepek Fun Country Kevlar
Mastercraft Courser MT
Mastercraft Courser HTR
Mastercraft Courser HTR Plus
Maxxis BigHorn Radial
Maxxis Creepy Crawler
Maxxis Trepador
Maxxis Buckshot Mudder
Maxxis MA-SW
Maxxis M-8080 Mudzilla
Maxxis MT-754 Buckshot
Maxxis MT-753 Bravo
Maxxis MA-751 Bravo
Maxxis MA-S2 Marauder II
Maxxis MA-S1 Marauder
Maxxis MT-762 BigHorn
Nitto Mud Grappler
Nitto Terra Grappler
Nitto Dura Grappler
Nitto Dune Grappler
Nokian Vatiiva MT
Pit Bull Rocker Extreme
Pit Bull Maddog
Pit Bull Growler
Goodyear Wrangler MT/R
Pro Comp Xterrain
Pro Comp All Terrain
Pro Comp Mud Terrain
Pro Comp Xtreme AT
Pro Comp Xtreme MT
Toyo Open Country MT
TrXus Mud Terrain
TrXus STS All Terrain
Michelin LTX A/T
Michelin LTX AT2 Press
Michelin LTX AT2
Mickey Thompson MTZ
Mickey Thompson MTX
Mickey Thompson Baja Claw Radial
Mickey Thompson Baja Claw Bias
Mickey Thompson Baja Crusher
Mickey Thompson Baja ATZ Radial SLT
Competition Claw
Dunlop Mud Rover
Federal Couragia M/T
Nitto Dura Grappler
Yokohama Geolandar
  
Dick Cepek's 2008 F-250 Super Duty Project Vehicle Project CRUSHER
 
Mud Tire Reviews
Product Reviews
Tire Reviews
 
  
 
ATV Tire Index
Carlisle 489 Titan
Dunlop Quadmax
Dunlop Quadmax Sport
Quadmax Sport Development
Highlifter Outlaw
ITP Holeshot
ITP Holeshot MX
ITP Holeshot ATR
ITP Holeshot XC
ITP Holeshot XCR
ITP Holeshot MXR
ITP Holeshot XCT
ITP Mud Lite
ITP Mud Lite XTR
ITP Sandstar
Kenda K538 Executioner
Tubeless Bearclaw K299
Kenda Klaw K532
Kenda Klaw K533
Kenda K534 Sand Gecko
Maxxis M961/M962 Mud Bug
Maxxis Rooster Paddle Tire
Maxxis M917/M918 Bighorn
Maxxis M966 Mudzilla
Super Swamper TSL ATV
Super Swamper TSL Vampire
Super Swamper Vampire EDL
Swamp Lite ATV Tires
 
ATV Tire FAQs
ATV Tire Mounting
ATV / Quad Links
 
Quad Tire Reviews Index

 


Off-Road Lights
by LightForce Product Review / Installation.
from Off-Road Lights

 


Jeep Dana 300 TeraLow - 4:1 Gearset for the Dana 300 Transfer Case

Jeep Trans Swap
T-18A Transmission Rebuild & Short Shaft Conversion
  


Black Diamond Suspension Lift install for CJ-7

 

From the
Department of Cheap   Tricks and Useful Tips

  
Ultra-Cool Hand Throttle for Free!

Jeep V8 Swap Tips

The Exploding Clutch

Radiator Protection using 6 bucks worth of material

Cracked Under Pressure - Fixing a smashed fingernail

A Cheap, effective alternative to undercoating

Home-built Saginaw Gearbox Brace for the cost of lunch!

Ammo Box Storage - Mounting Them for Quick Disconnect

Home-built Serious Skid-Plate protection for the Oil Pan for under 20 bucks!